Cage is a kiosk compositor for Wayland. A kiosk is a window manager (in the X11 world) or compositor (in the Wayland world) that is designed for a user experience wherein user interaction and activities outside the scope of the running application are prevented. That is, a kiosk compositor displays a single maximized application at a time and prevents the user from interacting with anything but this application.
As such, user input such as moving, resizing, minimizing and unmaximizing windows is ignored. Cage supports dialogs, although they too cannot be resized nor moved. Instead, dialogs are centered on the screen. Note that multiple maximized windows are supported, but the user is not able to cycle between them. That is, if Cage is launched with a terminal emulator and an application is launched from this terminal emulator, that application is placed “on top” of the terminal emulator and takes all input until it is closed. When this application is closed, the terminal emulator becomes visible again.
Cage supports a single, static output. It does not support hotplugging additional outputs and exits when its only output is removed. Cage defaults to the output’s preferred mode and supports (static, i.e. specified on startup) output rotation. Cage does not support virtual workspaces. Input-wise, Cage supports pointer input, keyboard input and touch input. Copy and paste works as well, also into and out of XWayland. Primary selection is supported, too.
Other features of Cage are:
Idle inhibit. This allows Cage to keep track of so-called inhibitors, which prevent idle behavior such as screen blanking or locking while for example a video is playing. Note that this requires a third party idle management daemon, such as swayidle.
Client side- and server side decorations. With GTK+ on Wayland, client side decorations are the norm. KDE (and sway), however, prefer server side decorations. On startup, Cage can be told to prefer (and communicate to supporting clients the use of) server side decorations. Note that decorations do not make sense for Cage (as user interaction isn’t supported per definition) and hence, Cage won’t draw any decorations when server side decorations are preferred.
Damage tracking. With damage tracking, Cage only redraws the parts of the screen that changed. This makes Cage very resource- and power efficient.
There is no configuration for Cage, other than command line arguments on
--help) and the
XKB_* environment variables to configure
keyboard devices. To start Cage, simply call its binary with the path to the
application you want to launch within the session. For example, use
/usr/bin/epiphany to launch Cage with the Epiphany web browser. When the last
application window is closed, Cage closes as well.
Cage does not support panels, virtual keyboards, screen capture, et cetera. If you have a good use case, I welcome pull requests implementing one of these features or any other feature or Wayland protocol. Virtual keyboard support, for example, is something I’m interesting in having added to Cage.
Cage is based on the annotated source of tinywl and rootston.
Releases are signed with 6EBC43B1 and published on GitHub.
Cage is packaged for Arch Linux. Note that this is still a pre-release.
As there is no stable release of Cage yet, for other distributions you’ll have to compile Cage from source. You can download the pre-releases from here. The latest pre-release (version 0.1.1) requires wlroots 0.6.0. Alternatively, you can grab the latest master from GitHub. The git build should always be built against the latest tag of wlroots.
You can build Cage with the Meson build system. Simply execute the following steps to build Cage:
$ meson build $ ninja -C build
Cage comes with compile-time support for XWayland. To enable this, first make
sure that your version of wlroots is compiled with this option. Then, add
-Dxwayland=true to the
meson command above. Note that you’ll need to have
the XWayland binary installed on your system for this to work.
You can then run Cage by running
--with=arguments. If you run Cage from within an existing X11 or Wayland
session, it will open in a virtual output as a window within your existing
session. If you run it from a TTY, it’ll run with the KMS+DRM backend. In debug
mode (the default build type with Meson), press Alt+Esc to
quit. To build a release build, use
meson build --buildtype=release.
You might want to start Cage automatically on boot. I have written such a service for my home automation project. This service logs in as the specified user after boot and then launches Cage with the specified application. It sets up a full user session with logind and a custom PAM stack.
You can find the systemd service
When using it, be sure to change the user. You will also need to add the custom
PAM stack found
This stack simply logs the user in with pam_unix and then launches a user
session with pam_systemd. Don’t forget to enable the service and to change
systemd’s default target to
If a Wayland kiosk is something you’ve been waiting for, or if you want a simple project to get your feet wet with wlroots and/or Wayland (or C, or open source contributions, or …), please feel free to jump in and help out! You can take a look at the open issues to see what needs to be done. I can assist and/or mentor anyone willing to contribute.
For any bug or feature request, please create an issue on GitHub.
Please see LICENSE on GitHub.
Copyright © 2018-2019 Jente Hidskes email@example.com.